swamp vervain

Verbena hastata

Image of swamp vervain


Also called blue vervain, this slender, erect, herbaceous perennial plant that is up to 60″ tall. It is found in wetlands and stream corridors across Wisconsin. Swamp vervain is an early colonizer following disturbance. Its small blue flowers appear along a florescence stalk in July and continue blooming into early September. The flowers are replaced by small nutlets (4 nutlets per flower).


swamp vervain

USDA Symbol: Common Name: Scientific Name:
VEHA2 swamp verbena Verbena hastata

ITIS TSN: 32071

Category: Dicot


Kingdom: Plantae


Super Division: Spermatophyta

Division: Magnoliophyta


Class: Magnoliopsida

SubClass: Asteridae

Order: Lamiales

Family: Verbenaceae

Counties: Adams, Ashland, Barron, Bayfield, Brown, Buffalo, Burnett, Calumet, Chippewa, Clark, Columbia, Crawford, Dane, Dodge, Door, Douglas, Dunn, Eau Claire, Florence, Fond du Lac, Forest, Grant, Green, Green Lake, Iowa, Iron, Jackson, Jefferson, Juneau, Kenosha, Kewaunee, La Crosse, Lafayette, Langlade, Lincoln, Manitowoc, Marathon, Marinette, Marquette, Menominee, Milwaukee, Monroe, Oconto, Oneida, Outagamie, Ozaukee, Pierce, Polk, Portage, Price, Racine, Richland, Rock, Rusk, Sauk, Sawyer, Shawano, Sheboygan, St. Croix, Taylor, Trempealeau, Vernon, Vilas, Walworth, Washburn, Washington, Waukesha, Waupaca, Waushara, Winnebago, Wood

Natural Community:

Curtis Community:

Coefficient of Conservation: 3

Duration: Growth Habit: Native Status:
Biennial, Perennial Forb/herb L48(N)CAN(N)

Active Growth Period: Spring, Summer and Fall

After Harvest Regrowth Rate:


Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio:

Coppice Potential: No

Conspicuous Fall Color: No

Fire Resistant: No

Flower Color: Blue

Conspicuous Flower: Yes

Foliage Color: Green

Foliage Light Porosity Summer:

Foliage Porosity Winter:

Foliage Texture: Medium

Fruit/Seed Color: Brown

Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes

Growth Form: Single Stem

Growth Rate: Moderate

Height at Base Age (Max):

Height at Maturity:

Known Alelopath:

Leaf Retention: No


Low Growing Grass: No


Shape and Orientation: Erect

Toxicity: None

Height (min): 16

Height (max): 60

Root Type: Fibrous

Leaf Type: simple

Leaf Arrangement: opposite

Leaf Shape: lanceolate

Leaf Margin: serrate

Vein Pattern:

Bloom Period: Commercial Availability: Fruit/Seed Abundance:
Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Fruit/Seed Period End: Fruit/Seed Persistence:
Propogated by Bare Root: Propogated by Bulbs: Propogated by Container:
No Yes
Propogated by Corms: Propogated by Cuttings: Propogated by Seed:
No No Yes
Propogated by Sod: Propogated by Sprigs: Propogated by Tubers:
No No No
Seeds per Pound: Seed Spread Rate: Seedling Vigor:
Small Grain: Vegetative Spread Rate: Propagation Treatment:
No Moist Stratification
Days to Stratify: Direct Sowing Time:
30 Fall

Benefits: Birds, Butterflies, Hummingbirds, Pollinators, Deer Resistant

Berry/Nut/Seed Product: Christmas Tree Product: Fodder Product:
No No No
Fuelwood Product: Lumber Product: Naval Store Product:
No No No
Nursery Stock Product: Palatable Browse Animal: Palatable Graze Animal:
Yes -- --
Palatable Human: Post Product: Protein Potential:
No No --
Pulpwood Product: Veneer Product:
No No
Benefits: Wildlife Food Value: Wildlife Cover Value:
Birds, Butterflies, Hummingbirds, Pollinators, Deer Resistant


  2. Illinois Wildflower DatabaseVerbena hastata
  3. USDA Plants DatabaseVerbena hastata
  4. Wisflora DatabaseVerbena hastata

Return to Native Plants page