Thursday, 11 January 2018

Waterfowl Deaths Warming Lakes Linked

Photo of dead waterfowl on the beach.

Photo by Michigan Sea Grant – University of Michigan

Researchers at the UW Madison found that tissue in a majority of dead waterfowl found at three locations around Lake Michigan contained botulism toxin. They just published their findings in the Journal of Applied Ecology. These deaths followed warm water algae blooms where counts of botulism producing bacteria (Clostridium botulinum) spiked.

According to the USGS Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases, “Most botulism outbreaks take place during the summer and fall when ambient temperatures are high.”

Lake Michigan waterfowl botulism deaths linked to warm waters, algae

Wildlife Study

Professor Ben Zuckerberg led the research into botulism deaths in Great Lakes waterfowl.

Microscopy image of waterfowl with Clostridium botulinum.

Photo from Wikipedia

Invasive zebra mussels have increased water clarity which along with warmer waters temperatures created the low-oxygen environment where the botulism toxin-producing bacteria thrive.

Birds do not use bacteria as a food source, however, they eat the insects and other invertebrates that do. According to the USGS “Invertebrates are unaffected by the toxin and, because they feed on decaying matter, they can effectively act to concentrate toxin.” That is how birds get lethal doses of the botulism bacteria.

To keep track of these deaths, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center created a citizen-science program called AMBLE (Avian Monitoring for Botulism Lakeshore Events) in 2010. Volunteers from AMBLE walked beaches in three areas around Lake Michigan.

 The Zuckerberg team also found that die-offs were located within a roughly 25-mile radius of one another.

These findings are no surprise to anglers and duck hunters on the Upper Mississippi. Rafts of cutes have been washing up on Mississippi dams along the State’s western border for several years now. There too toxicology reports show botulism as the cause.

Looking Forward

The hope is that scientists may be able to predict when botulism outbreaks could occur by watching environmental conditions.

2017

December 2017

Wednesday, 27 December 2017

Landowner Help for Common Reed Control

Picture of standing man with common reed towering over him.

Photo by James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Landowners across southeastern Wisconsin know about common reed, an invasive grass that is even tougher than cattails. If this invasive species is on your hit list we have good news for you.

Description

Common reed (Phragmites australis), also called phragmites, invades moist habitats including lake shores, river banks and roadways. It has extensive rhizomes that can quickly spread underground and take over large areas. These rhizomes store energy, as a result, the plant can recover from cutting, burning or grazing. 

Common reed alters hydrology and wildlife habitat, increases fire potential, and shades native species. It can spread through root fragmentation, long runners above ground, and sometimes windblown seeds or cut stem fragments. Phragmites is on the Wisconsin DNR Chapter 40 list of prohibited and restricted species.

According to the Wisconsin Wetlands Association, Phragmites is the tallest wetland grass in Wisconsin. It grows upwards of 14 feet. Seed heads are visible from August to September, and it has a round stem, long, wide leaves. Its prominent plume-like seed head that is whitish to purplish in color. Be aware, there is a variety of Phragmites native to Wisconsin that forms less dense patches (you can generally see through the stand) and flowers earlier (July to August).

The Midwest Invasive Plant Network (MIPN) is working in partnership with the U.S. Forest Service Region 9, to host a series of 3 webinars in January and February featuring case studies of the restoration of sites invaded with exotic pest plants.

Webinar

Illustration of common reed seed head.

The first event will be on Tuesday, January 16th, 11:30 – 12:30 CST. The presentation is titled “Bridging the Gap – New Insights on Technology and on-the-ground Management of Phragmites.” The presentation will be given by Steve Apfelbaum, Founder and Chairman of Applied Ecological Services out of Brodhead, Wisconsin.

For free registration, please visit the MIPN site, and make sure the email address mipn@mortonarb.org is in your approved contacts to receive the webinar link.

Monday, 11 December 2017

Forest Killing Weed: Japanese knotweed

closeup of Japanese knotweed flower

Japanese knotweed, also called Mexican bamboo grows up to 15 feet tall.

What would you say if somebody told you that a weed could crack the asphalt in you driveway, force its way through the foundation of you house and prevent maple regeneration in your woodland? The weed is called Japanese knotweed and it is here in Wisconsin.

Picture of silver maple floodplain forest community.

Healthy silver maple lowland floodplain forest community with native ferns as ground cover. Courtesy of the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry.

Researchers in Pennsylvania found that the invasive plant, Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica), can grow so thick in river floodplains that it can prevent silver maple seeds from taking root and regenerating the forest canopy.

It appears, however, that poison ivy may be a competitor for Japanese knotweed. And unlike knotweed, poison ivy seems to be much more of a team player. Areas with high density of poison ivy had more diversity than those dominated by knotweed. Not withstanding the problems it causes humans, poison ivy seems to be  better neighbor for stream bank plants.

Japanese knotweed is a serious threat in wet soils, especially in lowlands and along riverbanks. Knotweed is also found along bike paths in Madison and roadways in Iowa County.

Knotweed Control

Getting rid of Japanese knotweed is very tough. It grows up six to ten feet tall on hollow stalks that die back in the winter. Knotweed produces a large amount of seed that sprouts really well. High water and even mower decks can easily spread seed or small pieces of cut stalks; both of which can start an whole new infestation. Knotweed also spreads through underground roots called rhizomes that can grow up to fifteen feet deep and twenty feet horizontally in a single year.

Kill very small patches by covering with black tarps that must be held down in place and cover an area fifteen feet wider than the patch itself to keep the roots from creeping out around the edge. The tarps must be left in place continuously for at least three years. This approach does not work for most situations.

Use a combined approach to attacking your Japanese knotweed problem. Cut down in June when the plants are around knee high. This removes stored nutrients from the roots and weakens the plant. Carefully bag and remove EVERYTHING and burn it completely or take it to a commercial landfill. Every small piece of stem that contains a node (where the leaf and stem meet) can form a completely new plant. NEVER take cuttings to a compost facility or place them on a home compost pile.

Repeat the process of cutting, bagging and removing all stems, leaves, flowers and seeds in late August or the first week of September. Again, burn the cuttings completely or taken them to a commercial landfill.

Three weeks later, spray the plants that have re-sprouted with Glyphosate (commercial products include Roundup) according to the label directions.

Japanese knotweed requires three years or more following the same regime to totally eliminate the problem.

Find More Help

For more information about managing Japanese knotweed, check out the Wisconsin DNR Invasive Species factsheet or the UW Extension bulletin.

November 2017

Sunday, 12 November 2017

Prairie Strips Help Farmers

Prairie strip embedded in an agricultural (corn) watershed. Prairie strips increase nutrient and sediment retention, reduce runoff, and increase biodiversity. Iowa State University

Farming is tough and farmers want to make sure they make good decisions. Most farmers have a deep conservation ethic and commitment to their land. Now doing well by doing good may be just what the soil doctor ordered.

A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes the results of a ten year study. The practice of prairie strips began as research plots at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, Iowa, and has expanded to 47 commercial farm sites in Iowa, Missouri, Illinois and other states.

Iowa Public Radio interviewed Lisa Schulte Moore, the primary researcher and a professor at Iowa State University. She cited the following benefits:

  • reducing soil loss by 95 percent
  • reducing phosphorus runoff by 77 percent
  • reducing overall nitrogen loss by 70 percent
  • attracting pollinators
  • increasing the number and diversity of birds.

By swapping out deep rooted native plants for cool-season monoculture grasses currently in use on field edges and across gently sloping fields, many farmers can significantly improve soil retention while reducing runoff.

According to a study by Helmers and Zhou incorporating prairie strips at the footslope position of annual rowcrop systems provides an effective way to reduce sediment loss in agricultural runoff from under a no-till system.

While not specifically sited in the study, water that stays on the land also improves groundwater recharge at the same time it is capturing phosphorus and nitrogen.

Friday, 03 November 2017

Fill’er Up!

Fall means it’s time to head into the woodlot to make wood for the furnace or fireplace. The cooler temperatures and fallen leaves also make brush cutting much easier.

Most landowners own several pieces of two-cycle equipment. Usually that list includes a chainsaw, though it may also include leaf blower, brush saw and even an old outboard motor or dirt bike. One thing is for sure; they all need fuel to run.

Two-cycle engines are popular because their power to weight ratio is so much better than four-cycle engines. That means a two-cycle engine will be a whole lot lighter its four-cycle cousin. As we all know, the trade-off is that they need to burn a mix of gas and two-cycle oil. Try using straight gas and watch you power equipment destroy itself as the pistons become welded to the cylinder walls.

What you may not know, however, is that most two-cycle engines are not designed to burn gasoline that contains ethanol, which eats away various gaskets and seals. 

While running a tank of ethanol containing gas may not immediately damage you equipment, many of us leave gas in the tank for days, weeks or months. To tell the truth, that half tank might sit unused in you brush saw or chainsaw for several years. Over that kind of time, even a single load of ethanol containing fuel cause significant damage.

Many stations only sell gas that contains ethanol. Others may sell ethanol-free gas but only in premium grades. It really makes sense to take the extra effort to find and use ethanol free gasoline in your power equipment.

Pure-gas.org is a website that lists gas stations that sell ethanol free gasoline. Their About page get into the nuts and bolts of ethanol free fuel. Whether a particular brand or grade contains ethanol can vary from one location to another, so you need to pay attention every time you stop at the pump.

Be safe and have fun in the woods.

October 2017

Saturday, 28 October 2017

Bring in the Hit Squad

Picture of young garlic mustard plants.

Young garlic mustard plants are especially easy to treat in the late fall or early spring when native plants are dormant. [Conservation Media, llc]

Are you struggling with tough invasive like garlic mustard and reed canary grass? This is a great time to put a serious hurt on these super species. It is also among the most economical times to get your revenge.

By now, native plants have gone dormant. The landscape should by and large be brown and tan. For landowners, who are battling any number of exotic weed species, the remaining green is a bitter reminder of their problem.

Fortunately, this green also represents a unique opportunity. Since native plants are safely sleeping beneath the soil, landowners are free to use non-selective herbicides that would otherwise harm beneficial plants. Chief among these is glyphosate, which is cheap and highly effective.

Those living plants that are sprayed now will either be killed outright or severely weakened so that they are unable to survive the stress of winter. By contrast, application made in spring or summer might stress but not kill something like reed canary grass, which could substantially recover before the arrival of winter.

Glyphosate is short lived, breaking down in the soil in just a couple weeks. This means that wildflowers and native grasses that emerge in the spring will be unaffected by fall spraying.

I still avoid broadcast spraying in most situations because it is wasteful. Spot spraying is way easier when your green target weeds stand out so well. This tactic is especially useful in situations where weeds are scattered among more rate native plants I want to protect.

Depending on weather, this window can be short. Snow and hard freezes will force even hearty weeds into dormancy. Herbicides tend to be more readily taken up on warm sunny fall days. 

Herbicide needs to be part of an integrated weed management approach that includes management tools like controlled fire, cover crops and mowing. As always, follow label directions to minimize the amount of chemical used while making sure it will do its job.

Wednesday, 18 October 2017

EPA Awards $2.7M for WI Weed Control

Picture of Lake Michigan beach with trees, dune grass and shrubs.

Lake Michigan’s magnificent shoreline faces huge challenges.

The EPA announced that it has awarded 2.7 million dollars to five Wisconsin groups to help control invasive plants in the state. The grants are part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative.

The Southeastern Wisconsin Invasive Species Consortium will receive $600,000 to implement a multi-organization collaboration to control the spread of invasive species along 2,000 miles of roadways and more than 600 acres of woodland habitat. The collaboration will include local government roadway crews, property owners, community-based organizations and school groups.

Picture of someone spraying herbicide on a tree stump.

Volunteer treats freshly cut stump sapwood with Garlon 4 to prevent the tree from re-sprouting.

The Bay-Lake Regional Planning Commission is granted $599,997 to control invasive species on approximately 1,000 acres in Kewaunee County, Wisconsin. Funding will help protect high quality habitat, as well as increase access to the coastline and nearshore areas.

The Wisconsin Tribal Conservation Advisory Council will use their $393,750 grant to employ four tribal civilian conservation corps, who will work with eleven tribes to prevent the degradation of subsistence fish and wild rice resources. Funded staff will also manage aquatic, wetland and terrestrial invasive species on more than 500 acres of tribal lands.

Picture of chainsaw and helmet on truck tailgate.

Gearing up for oak savanna restoration.

Two new invasive control employees will be funded for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. They will receive $551,669 to pay for two new crew members to control invasive species in 900 acres of the Great Lakes Basin. Lake Winnebago Chain of Lakes and the Fox River above Green Bay will be targeted.

An award of $599,673 will go to the Lakeshore Natural Resource Partnership to control invasive species on approximately 1,370 acres of wetland and aquatic habitat in northeastern Wisconsin. The funded project will improve the ecosystem services and enhance tourism, property values and navigation.

According to Jim Kettler, Executive Director of the Lakeshore Natural Resource Partnership. “LNRP efforts to control and limit Phragmites spread will focus on collaboration between stakeholders including federal, state, and county agencies, local townships, private landowners, community non-profits, and natural area and right-of-way managers through the implementation of best management practices, education, and outreach.”

Contact Allison Nowotarski (nowotarski.allison@epa.gov) for more information about these grants.

Friday, 13 October 2017

17 New Whooping Cranes

Whooping Crane jumping.

Whooping Crane jumping at its home in Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Photo credit USGS – PWRC.

Getting ready for the long migration south, this year’s class of 17 whooping crane chicks will soon be joining the flocks across Wisconsin. Seven costume raised chicks were released at the White River Wildlife Area in Green Lake County. The remaining eleven parent raise chicks were released to join flocks in Marathon, Dodge, Winnebago and Marquette counties. The chicks came from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center.

The class of 2017 will soon be leaving on their long journey to their wintering grounds in Florida. An 18th chick is recovering from an injured wing and will be released once it injuries are completely healed. The Operation Migration Team is a non-profit that has lead efforts to re-introduce Whooping Cranes to the eastern United States. They recently posted a summary of Whooping Crane news on the Journey North website.

 

 

Tuesday, 03 October 2017

Forest Weed Grant Applications Due Soon

Are you a private landowner in the Mukwonago river watershed. who wants to remove invasive weeds and brush from your woodlands? The Friends of Mukwonago River has funds available now from a WDNR Forest Weed Management Grant. Application deadline to the Friends is October 23, 2017.

Landowners in the Mukwonago River Watershed have a unique opportunity to receive financial assistance as they learn control techniques for these and other invasive species and perform restoration on their own properties under a Forest Weed Grant through the Friends of the Mukwonago River. Invasive species are the current most critical threat to the health of the watershed.

Interested? The landowner application is here: 2016 FWG Land Owner Application & Rubric, and the FWG Land Management Template. Figure out where and what on your property you want to manage. You will need to submit and follow a management plan that is not difficult.

The WMA-PFGP assists eligible weed management groups (WMG) in addressing invasive plants, both by dealing directly with the invasives and by providing education, information and outreach to others. This is a reimbursement program that covers up to 75% of the eligible costs, 25% match is required.

Questions? Contact Friends at mukwonagoriver.org  Send your completed application to this email address, or our PO Box 21, Eagle WI. 53119   www.mukwonagoriver.org.

Sunday, 01 October 2017

The Long Flight Home

Caterpillars are finishing their feast on milkweed plants across Wisconsin and preparing to shed their skin to change into monarch butterflies. Monarch butterflies are important pollinators collecting reading plant pollen as they collect nectar. While they feed on a wide variety of plants, monarch butterflies only lay their eggs on milkweed plants.

This super generation of monarchs will spend their entire lives flying to their wintering home in Mexican state of Michoacan. Once there, they will lay their eggs and die.

The offspring of this super generation overwinters in and begins their journey back the following spring. This first generation of the new year only migrates as far as Texas and the Gulf coast where they lay eggs that spend the next month developing into larvae, caterpillars and then butterflies. The second generation continues the migration to the summer home grounds where the third and fourth generations spend the warm months feeding and breeding.

In late summer the fourth generation lays the eggs that will become the next southward bound super generation. Warm weather in September allowed monarchs to continue feeding in southern Wisconsin. This super generation is now making its way south. 

There are two distinct populations of monarch butterflies, those east of the rocky mountains that winter in the mountains of central Mexico and the western monarchs that winter coastal tree groves in California and spread out across to forage and lay their eggs throughout California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington. Urbanization and extensive use of pesticides by farmers have dramatically reduced the amount of milkweed plants that western monarchs need to lay their eggs.

Our eastern monarchs, currently numbering some ten million, have been extensively studied for nearly forty years. Only recently have the western monarch butterflies received careful study. The results of that study, funded by the USFWS, are stunning. According to the study’s author, Washington State University researcher Cheryl Schultz, western monarch populations have plummeted from 10,000,000 forty years ago to approximately 300,000 today. This decline is so steep that the authors predict that western monarch butterflies have a 63% chance of extinction in the next twenty years and an 84% likelihood of extinction within the next 50 years.

Want to be involved in helping monarch butterflies? Journey North is a citizen science project that tracks the movement of monarch butterflies and other species.

Their projects provide scientist with valuable information about their movements.